Thursday, November 21, 2019

Classical leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Classical leadership - Essay Example Leadership is a complex reality, hence, it can constitute a shifting enigma. Tolstoy's bow-wave metaphor suggests that the leaders are mere figureheads who are propelled by events beyond their control. The main issue then is whether the leaders really lead or if they are merely pulled by the events or situation they face everyday.Grint presents a model that encompasses epistemologically and methodologically different perspectives on leadership. It is composed of four perspectives. The trait approach states that the essence of the individual leader is critical but the context is not. The contingency approach states that the essence and the context are both knowable and critical. The situational approach means that certain contexts demand certain kinds of leadership. This situation requires flexibility from the leaders. The constitutive approach, which stems from the constructivist theories in the social sciences suggests that what the situation and the leader actually are is a consequ ence of acts and interpretations. In the constitutive approach, the situation and the leader do not have essences.My personal opinion is that leadership is a key task. People demand from their leaders direction or vision, trustworthiness, and optimism. Like effective parents, good leaders make people hopeful. Warren Bennis (2001) emphasized the four competencies of leadership: technical competence, people skills, conceptual skills, judgment, and character. Bennis believes that effective leadership is primarily the function of one's character. I believe that these four leadership perspectives coincide with John Adair's approach on functional leadership. This approach suggests that leadership skills can be developed but that other qualities such as integrity and humility are essential to the makeup of an effective leader. CLASSICAL LEADERSHIP Classical Leadership was developed by four influential writers: Plato, Sun Tzu, Machiavelli, and Pareto. Plato primarily thought that the concept of a democratic society was problematic and so he developed a critique. He introduced the mob: the majority. He argued that the captain can be trusted because only he has the necessary knowledge. He was convinced that the subordinate groups should not be allowed to challenge the philosopher rulers, to ensure the safety of the 'ship'. The larger issue was not over whether leadership skills could be taught but what they were being taught for. Sun Tzu regarded the principle of one person, one job as crucial to success. His work, "Art of War" is a doctrine that does not glorify war but denounces those who seek it. The way of peace is always sought over violence but, when no option is left open, the violence is executed with the minimum effort and maximum effect. This philosophy generates a hierarchy of strategies which are premised on avoidance as the first strategy and face-to-face violence as the last. He believes that the best way to defeat an enemy is to foil the enemy's plots. He is keen for leaders to avoid being hated; he is aware that 'the goodwill' of the people is significant. Only by forging alliances with other princes and by the use of technology, and by disorganizing the competition, will the prince survive. Elites not 'the people' were a part of human society for Pareto. Pareto argues that human action is irrational and this is due to residues. Residues are prevalent and unchanging across space or time. The forms of elite control, are rooted in two oppositional forms of residues: Class I and Class II. These key writers showed us that leadership perspectives varied across time. Traditional Leadership Traditional leadership constitutes what Barnard identified within a triangle of elements that include the individual leader, the

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